导读 linux添加硬盘后都需要一个操作操作才能使用那就是挂载,在企业环境中我们的数据盘和系统盘一般都是分开的。前几天一个朋友让我帮忙分下区把数据盘挂载到/home下去。(个人需求吧,有些公司一般都是专门在'/'下面创建一个data 来做数据盘)。操作记录下了来分享给大家,新手复习,老鸟绕道(如果这些都看不懂的话,Linux需要恶补额!!!)

需求:需要把系统盘搞到/home 下面。

思考:/home 下面是用户默认的家目录,如果用户家目录有数据是会被覆盖的。找朋友确认是刚安装的系统才开始搞的。更改分区大小首先想到的是lvm,但是看了客户的磁盘信息发现不需要考虑这些,怎么简单怎么来。

查看硬盘信息
[root@localhost /]# fdisk -l            查看硬盘信息

Disk /dev/sda: 240.1 GB, 240057409536 bytes, 468862128 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x00085ef7

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *        2048     1026047      512000   83  Linux
/dev/sda2         1026048    17803263     8388608   82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda3        17803264   468860927   225528832   83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 240.1 GB, 240057409536 bytes, 468862128 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/sdc: 500.1 GB, 500107862016 bytes, 976773168 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0007a974

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdc1            2048   976773119   488385536   8e  Linux LVM

Disk /dev/sdd: 240.1 GB, 240057409536 bytes, 468862128 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x000a4688

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdd1   *        2048     1026047      512000   83  Linux
/dev/sdd2         1026048   468860927   233917440   8e  Linux LVM

数据的操作是需要非常严谨的,看到了这么多的硬盘,有看到了lvm分区。对于新装的系统我第一感觉是:难道要我修复lvm分区吗?经过和朋友确认发现我想多了,只是挂载,磁盘已经拔掉了。

找到对应硬盘分区格式化
磁盘分区
[root@localhost /]# fdisk /dev/sdb              \\针对第二块盘分区
Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).

Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
Be careful before using the write command.

Device does not contain a recognized partition table
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x6511fa23.

Command (m for help): p                   \\查看已有分区

Disk /dev/sdb: 240.1 GB, 240057409536 bytes, 468862128 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x6511fa23

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

Command (m for help): n                    \\创建分区
Partition type:
   p   primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)
   e   extended
Select (default p): p                        \\主分区
Partition number (1-4, default 1): 
First sector (2048-468862127, default 2048): 
Using default value 2048
Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-468862127, default 468862127): 
Using default value 468862127
Partition 1 of type Linux and of size 223.6 GiB is set

Command (m for help): p                     \\查看确认分区
 
Disk /dev/sdb: 240.1 GB, 240057409536 bytes, 468862128 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk label type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x6511fa23

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1            2048   468862127   234430040   83  Linux

Command (m for help): w                    \\保存改分区
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.
分区格式化
[root@localhost /]# mkfs             \\tab 万能操作
mkfs         mkfs.btrfs   mkfs.cramfs  mkfs.ext2    mkfs.ext3    mkfs.ext4    mkfs.minix   mkfs.xfs     
[root@localhost /]# mkfs.xfs /dev/sdb1         格式化sdb1
meta-data=/dev/sdb1              isize=256    agcount=4, agsize=14651878 blks
         =                       sectsz=512   attr=2, projid32bit=1
         =                       crc=0        finobt=0
data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=58607510, imaxpct=25
         =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks
naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=0
log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=28616, version=2
         =                       sectsz=512   sunit=0 blks, lazy-count=1
realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0
查看检查分区

[root@localhost /]# lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda      8:0    0 223.6G  0 disk 
├─sda1   8:1    0   500M  0 part /boot
├─sda2   8:2    0     8G  0 part [SWAP]
└─sda3   8:3    0 215.1G  0 part /
sdb      8:16   0 223.6G  0 disk 
└─sdb1   8:17   0 223.6G  0 part 
挂载分区到"/home"
挂载分区,找到uuid,写入fstab
[root@localhost /]# blkid /dev/sdb1             查看sdb1 的uuid   写入fstab uuid 最稳定  /dev/sdb1 也可以
/dev/sdb1: UUID="ffbd4feb-c55e-40ca-86d3-c43919bd9060" TYPE="xfs" 
[root@localhost /]# echo "/dev/sdb1: UUID="ffbd4feb-c55e-40ca-86d3-c43919bd9060" TYPE="xfs" " >> /etc/fstab 
[root@localhost /]# vim /etc/fstab 
-bash: vim: command not found

[root@localhost /]# vi /etc/fstab           写入fstab
[root@localhost /]# tail -n 2 /etc/fstab
ffbd4feb-c55e-40ca-86d3-c43919bd9060  /home xfs defaults 0 0
#/dev/sdb1 /home xfs defaults 0 0         \\uuid 和 /dev/sdb1 区别??
[root@localhost /]# mount -a                 重新读取配置文件
检查挂载成果,挂载成功!!
[root@localhost /]# df -Th
Filesystem     Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda3      xfs       215G  852M  215G   1% /
devtmpfs       devtmpfs  7.8G     0  7.8G   0% /dev
tmpfs          tmpfs     7.8G     0  7.8G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs          tmpfs     7.8G  8.4M  7.8G   1% /run
tmpfs          tmpfs     7.8G     0  7.8G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1      xfs       497M  119M  378M  24% /boot
tmpfs          tmpfs     1.6G     0  1.6G   0% /run/user/0
/dev/sdb1      xfs       224G   33M  224G   1% /home

[root@localhost /]# lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda      8:0    0 223.6G  0 disk 
├─sda1   8:1    0   500M  0 part /boot
├─sda2   8:2    0     8G  0 part [SWAP]
└─sda3   8:3    0 215.1G  0 part /
sdb      8:16   0 223.6G  0 disk 
└─sdb1   8:17   0 223.6G  0 part /home

ok,收工!!

PS:菜鸟级教程,新手复习,老鸟勿喷!如果这些你都看不懂的话,真的要恶补了!!!

本文原创地址:http://www.linuxprobe.com/linux-mount-disk.html作者:陶武杰,审核员:冯振华