导读 用正则表达式验证邮件地址似乎是一件简单的事情,但是如果要完美的验证一个合规的邮件地址,其实也许很复杂。邮件地址的规范来自于 RFC 5322 。

 

邮件地址的规范来自于 RFC 5322 。有一个网站 emailregex.com 专门列出各种编程语言下的验证邮件地址的正则表达式,其中很多正则表达式都是我听说过而从未见过的复杂——我想说,做这个网站的程序员是被邮件验证这件事伤害了多深啊!

其实,在产品环境中,一般来说并不需要这么复杂的正则表达式来做到99.99%正确。一般来说,从执行效率和测试覆盖率来说,只需要一个简单的版本即可:

/^[A-Z0-9._%+-]+@[A-Z0-9.-]+/.[A-Z]{2,4}$/i

那么下面我们来看看这些更严谨、更复杂的正则表达式吧:

验证邮件地址的通用正则表达式(符合 RFC 5322 标准)
(?:[a-z0-9!#$%&'*+/=?^_`{|}~-]+(?:/.[a-z0-9!#$%&'*+/=?^_`{|}~-]+)*|"(?:[/x01-/x08/x0b/x0c/x0e-/x1f/x21/x23-/x5b/x5d-/x7f]|//[/x01-/x09/x0b/x0c/x0e-/x7f])*")@(?:(?:[a-z0-9](?:[a-z0-9-]*[a-z0-9])?/.)+[a-z0-9](?:[a-z0-9-]*[a-z0-9])?|/[(?:(?:25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)/.){3}(?:25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?|[a-z0-9-]*[a-z0-9]:(?:[/x01-/x08/x0b/x0c/x0e-/x1f/x21-/x5a/x53-/x7f]|//[/x01-/x09/x0b/x0c/x0e-/x7f])+)/])

由于各种语言对正则表达式的支持不同、语法差异和覆盖率不同,所以,不同语言里面的正则表达式也不同:

Python

这个是个简单的版本:

r"(^[a-zA-Z0-9_.+-]+@[a-zA-Z0-9-]+/.[a-zA-Z0-9-.]+$)"
Javascript

这个有点复杂了:

/^[-a-z0-9~!$%^&*_=+}{/'?]+(/.[-a-z0-9~!$%^&*_=+}{/'?]+)*@([a-z0-9_][-a-z0-9_]*(/.[-a-z0-9_]+)*/.(aero|arpa|biz|com|coop|edu|gov|info|int|mil|museum|name|net|org|pro|travel|mobi|[a-z][a-z])|([0-9]{1,3}/.[0-9]{1,3}/.[0-9]{1,3}/.[0-9]{1,3}))(:[0-9]{1,5})?$/i
Swift
[A-Z0-9a-z._%+-]+@[A-Za-z0-9.-]+//.[A-Za-z]{2,6}
PHP

PHP 的这个版本就更复杂了,覆盖率就更大一些:

/^(?!(?:(?:/x22?/x5C[/x00-/x7E]/x22?)|(?:/x22?[^/x5C/x22]/x22?)){255,})(?!(?:(?:/x22?/x5C[/x00-/x7E]/x22?)|(?:/x22?[^/x5C/x22]/x22?)){65,}@)(?:(?:[/x21/x23-/x27/x2A/x2B/x2D/x2F-/x39/x3D/x3F/x5E-/x7E]+)|(?:/x22(?:[/x01-/x08/x0B/x0C/x0E-/x1F/x21/x23-/x5B/x5D-/x7F]|(?:/x5C[/x00-/x7F]))*/x22))(?:/.(?:(?:[/x21/x23-/x27/x2A/x2B/x2D/x2F-/x39/x3D/x3F/x5E-/x7E]+)|(?:/x22(?:[/x01-/x08/x0B/x0C/x0E-/x1F/x21/x23-/x5B/x5D-/x7F]|(?:/x5C[/x00-/x7F]))*/x22)))*@(?:(?:(?!.*[^.]{64,})(?:(?:(?:xn--)?[a-z0-9]+(?:-[a-z0-9]+)*/.){1,126}){1,}(?:(?:[a-z][a-z0-9]*)|(?:(?:xn--)[a-z0-9]+))(?:-[a-z0-9]+)*)|(?:/[(?:(?:IPv6:(?:(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){7})|(?:(?!(?:.*[a-f0-9][:/]]){7,})(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){0,5})?::(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){0,5})?)))|(?:(?:IPv6:(?:(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){5}:)|(?:(?!(?:.*[a-f0-9]:){5,})(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){0,3})?::(?:[a-f0-9]{1,4}(?::[a-f0-9]{1,4}){0,3}:)?)))?(?:(?:25[0-5])|(?:2[0-4][0-9])|(?:1[0-9]{2})|(?:[1-9]?[0-9]))(?:/.(?:(?:25[0-5])|(?:2[0-4][0-9])|(?:1[0-9]{2})|(?:[1-9]?[0-9]))){3}))/]))$/iD
Perl / Ruby

对与 PHP 的版本,Perl 和 Ruby 表示不服,可以更严谨:

(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:(?:(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[/t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*@(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*|(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)*/<(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:@(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[/t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*(?:,@(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[/t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*)*:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)?(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*@(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*/>(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)|(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)*:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:(?:(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/]/000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*@(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*|(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)*/<(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:@(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*(?:,@(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/]/000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*)*:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)?(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*@(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*/>(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:,/s*(?:(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*@(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*|(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)*/<(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:@(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*(?:,@(?:(?:/r/n)?[/t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*)*:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)?(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|"(?:[^/"/r//]|//.|(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t]))*"(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*@(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*)(?:/.(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*(?:[^()<>@,;://"./[/] /000-/031]+(?:(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])+|/Z|(?=[/["()<>@,;://"./[/]]))|/[([^/[/]/r//]|//.)*/](?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*/>(?:(?:/r/n)?[ /t])*))*)?;/s
Perl 5.10 及以后版本

上面的版本,嗯,我可以说是天书吗?反正我是没有解读的想法了。当然,新版本的 Perl 语言还有一个更易读的版本(你是说真的么?)

/(?(DEFINE)
(?<address> (?&mailbox) | (?&group))
(?<mailbox> (?&name_addr) | (?&addr_spec))
(?<name_addr> (?&display_name)? (?&angle_addr))
(?<angle_addr> (?&CFWS)? < (?&addr_spec) > (?&CFWS)?)
(?<group> (?&display_name) : (?:(?&mailbox_list) | (?&CFWS))? ;
(?&CFWS)?)
(?<display_name> (?&phrase))
(?<mailbox_list> (?&mailbox) (?: , (?&mailbox))*)

(?<addr_spec> (?&local_part) /@ (?&domain))
(?<local_part> (?&dot_atom) | (?&quoted_string))
(?<domain> (?&dot_atom) | (?&domain_literal))
(?<domain_literal> (?&CFWS)? /[ (?: (?&FWS)? (?&dcontent))* (?&FWS)?
/] (?&CFWS)?)
(?<dcontent> (?&dtext) | (?&quoted_pair))
(?<dtext> (?&NO_WS_CTL) | [/x21-/x5a/x5e-/x7e])

(?<atext> (?&ALPHA) | (?&DIGIT) | [!#/$%&'*+-/=?^_`{|}~])
(?<atom> (?&CFWS)? (?&atext)+ (?&CFWS)?)
(?<dot_atom> (?&CFWS)? (?&dot_atom_text) (?&CFWS)?)
(?<dot_atom_text> (?&atext)+ (?: /. (?&atext)+)*)

(?<text> [/x01-/x09/x0b/x0c/x0e-/x7f])
(?<quoted_pair> // (?&text))

(?<qtext> (?&NO_WS_CTL) | [/x21/x23-/x5b/x5d-/x7e])
(?<qcontent> (?&qtext) | (?&quoted_pair))
(?<quoted_string> (?&CFWS)? (?&DQUOTE) (?:(?&FWS)? (?&qcontent))*
(?&FWS)? (?&DQUOTE) (?&CFWS)?)

(?<word> (?&atom) | (?&quoted_string))
(?<phrase> (?&word)+)

# Folding white space
(?<FWS> (?: (?&WSP)* (?&CRLF))? (?&WSP)+)
(?<ctext> (?&NO_WS_CTL) | [/x21-/x27/x2a-/x5b/x5d-/x7e])
(?<ccontent> (?&ctext) | (?&quoted_pair) | (?&comment))
(?<comment> /( (?: (?&FWS)? (?&ccontent))* (?&FWS)? /) )
(?<CFWS> (?: (?&FWS)? (?&comment))*
(?: (?:(?&FWS)? (?&comment)) | (?&FWS)))

# No whitespace control
(?<NO_WS_CTL> [/x01-/x08/x0b/x0c/x0e-/x1f/x7f])

(?<ALPHA> [A-Za-z])
(?<DIGIT> [0-9])
(?<CRLF> /x0d /x0a)
(?<DQUOTE> ")
(?<WSP> [/x20/x09])
)

(?&address)/x
Ruby (简单版)

Ruby 表示,其实人家还有个简单版本:

//A([/w+/-].?)+@[a-z/d/-]+(/.[a-z]+)*/.[a-z]+/z/i
.NET

这样的版本谁没有啊——.NET 说:

^/w+([-+.']/w+)*@/w+([-.]/w+)*/./w+([-.]/w+)*$
grep 命令

用 grep 命令在文件中查找邮件地址,我想你不会写个若干行的正则表达式吧,意思一下就行了:

$ grep -E -o "/b[A-Za-z0-9._%+-]+@[A-Za-z0-9.-]+/.[A-Za-z]{2,6}/b" filename.txt
SQL Server

在 SQL Server 中也是可以用正则表达式的,不过这个代码片段应该是来自某个产品环境中的,所以,还体贴的照顾了那些把邮件地址写错的人:

 select email 
 from table_name where 
 patindex ('%[ &'',":;!+=//()<>]%', email) > 0 -- Invalid characters
 or patindex ('[@.-_]%', email) > 0 -- Valid but cannot be starting character
 or patindex ('%[@.-_]', email) > 0 -- Valid but cannot be ending character
 or email not like '%@%.%' -- Must contain at least one @ and one .
 or email like '%..%' -- Cannot have two periods in a row
 or email like '%@%@%' -- Cannot have two @ anywhere
 or email like '%.@%' or email like '%@.%' -- Cannot have @ and . next to each other
 or email like '%.cm' or email like '%.co' -- Camaroon or Colombia? Typos. 
 or email like '%.or' or email like '%.ne' -- Missing last letter
Oracle PL/SQL

这个是不是有点偷懒?尤其是在那些“复杂”的正则表达式之后:

SELECT email 
FROM table_name
WHERE REGEXP_LIKE (email, '[A-Z0-9._%-]+@[A-Z0-9._%-]+/.[A-Z]{2,4}');
MySQL

好吧,看来最后也一样懒:

SELECT * FROM `users` WHERE `email` NOT REGEXP '^[A-Z0-9._%-]+@[A-Z0-9.-]+/.[A-Z]{2,4}$';

那么,你有没有关于验证邮件地址的正则表达式分享给大家?

 

原文来自:https://linux.cn/article-5963-1.html

本文地址:http://www.linuxprobe.com/regular-expression-emailregex.html编辑员:张雄,审核员:杨鹏飞