导读 归并排序(Merge sort)是建立在归并操作上的一种有效的排序算法。该算法是采用分治法(Divide and Conquer)的一个非常典型的应用。

作为一种典型的分而治之思想的算法应用,归并排序的实现由两种方法:

  1. 自上而下的递归(所有递归的方法都可以用迭代重写,所以就有了第 2 种方法);
  2. 自下而上的迭代;

在《数据结构与算法 JavaScript 描述》中,作者给出了自下而上的迭代方法。但是对于递归法,作者却认为:

However, it is not possible to do so in JavaScript, as the recursion goes too deep for the language to handle.
然而,在 JavaScript 中这种方式不太可行,因为这个算法的递归深度对它来讲太深了。

说实话,我不太理解这句话。意思是 JavaScript 编译器内存太小,递归太深容易造成内存溢出吗?还望有大神能够指教。

和选择排序一样,归并排序的性能不受输入数据的影响,但表现比选择排序好的多,因为始终都是 O(nlogn) 的时间复杂度。代价是需要额外的内存空间。

算法步骤
  1. 申请空间,使其大小为两个已经排序序列之和,该空间用来存放合并后的序列;
  2. 设定两个指针,最初位置分别为两个已经排序序列的起始位置;
  3. 比较两个指针所指向的元素,选择相对小的元素放入到合并空间,并移动指针到下一位置;
  4. 重复步骤 3 直到某一指针达到序列尾;
  5. 将另一序列剩下的所有元素直接复制到合并序列尾。
动图演示

代码实现
JavaScript

实例

function mergeSort(arr) {  // 采用自上而下的递归方法
    var len = arr.length;
    if(len < 2) {
        return arr;
    }
    var middle = Math.floor(len / 2),
        left = arr.slice(0, middle),
        right = arr.slice(middle);
    return merge(mergeSort(left), mergeSort(right));
}

function merge(left, right)
{
    var result = [];

    while (left.length && right.length) {
        if (left[0] <= right[0]) {
            result.push(left.shift());
        } else {
            result.push(right.shift());
        }
    }

    while (left.length)
        result.push(left.shift());

    while (right.length)
        result.push(right.shift());

    return result;
}
Python

实例

def mergeSort(arr):
    import math
    if(len(arr)<2):
        return arr
    middle = math.floor(len(arr)/2)
    left, right = arr[0:middle], arr[middle:]
    return merge(mergeSort(left), mergeSort(right))

def merge(left,right):
    result = []
    while left and right:
        if left[0] <= right[0]:
            result.append(left.pop(0))
        else:
            result.append(right.pop(0));
    while left:
        result.append(left.pop(0))
    while right:
        result.append(right.pop(0));
    return result
Go

实例

func mergeSort(arr []int) []int {
        length := len(arr)
        if length < 2 {
                return arr
        }
        middle := length / 2
        left := arr[0:middle]
        right := arr[middle:]
        return merge(mergeSort(left), mergeSort(right))
}

func merge(left []int, right []int) []int {
        var result []int
        for len(left) != 0 && len(right) != 0 {
                if left[0] <= right[0] {
                        result = append(result, left[0])
                        left = left[1:]
                } else {
                        result = append(result, right[0])
                        right = right[1:]
                }
        }

        for len(left) != 0 {
                result = append(result, left[0])
                left = left[1:]
        }

        for len(right) != 0 {
                result = append(result, right[0])
                right = right[1:]
        }

        return result
}
Java

实例

public class MergeSort implements IArraySort {

    @Override
    public int[] sort(int[] sourceArray) throws Exception {
        // 对 arr 进行拷贝,不改变参数内容
        int[] arr = Arrays.copyOf(sourceArray, sourceArray.length);

        if (arr.length < 2) {
            return arr;
        }
        int middle = (int) Math.floor(arr.length / 2);

        int[] left = Arrays.copyOfRange(arr, 0, middle);
        int[] right = Arrays.copyOfRange(arr, middle, arr.length);

        return merge(sort(left), sort(right));
    }

    protected int[] merge(int[] left, int[] right) {
        int[] result = new int[left.length + right.length];
        int i = 0;
        while (left.length > 0 && right.length > 0) {
            if (left[0] <= right[0]) {
                result[i++] = left[0];
                left = Arrays.copyOfRange(left, 1, left.length);
            } else {
                result[i++] = right[0];
                right = Arrays.copyOfRange(right, 1, right.length);
            }
        }

        while (left.length > 0) {
            result[i++] = left[0];
            left = Arrays.copyOfRange(left, 1, left.length);
        }

        while (right.length > 0) {
            result[i++] = right[0];
            right = Arrays.copyOfRange(right, 1, right.length);
        }

        return result;
    }

}
PHP

实例

function mergeSort($arr)
{
    $len = count($arr);
    if ($len < 2) {
        return $arr;
    }
    $middle = floor($len / 2);
    $left = array_slice($arr, 0, $middle);
    $right = array_slice($arr, $middle);
    return merge(mergeSort($left), mergeSort($right));
}

function merge($left, $right)
{
    $result = [];

    while (count($left) > 0 && count($right) > 0) {
        if ($left[0] <= $right[0]) {
            $result[] = array_shift($left);
        } else {
            $result[] = array_shift($right);
        }
    }

    while (count($left))
        $result[] = array_shift($left);

    while (count($right))
        $result[] = array_shift($right);

    return $result;
}
C

实例

int min(int x, int y) {
    return x < y ? x : y;
}
void merge_sort(int arr[], int len) {
    int *a = arr;
    int *b = (int *) malloc(len * sizeof(int));
    int seg, start;
    for (seg = 1; seg < len; seg += seg) {
        for (start = 0; start < len; start += seg * 2) {
            int low = start, mid = min(start + seg, len), high = min(start + seg * 2, len);
            int k = low;
            int start1 = low, end1 = mid;
            int start2 = mid, end2 = high;
            while (start1 < end1 && start2 < end2)
                b[k++] = a[start1] < a[start2] ? a[start1++] : a[start2++];
            while (start1 < end1)
                b[k++] = a[start1++];
            while (start2 < end2)
                b[k++] = a[start2++];
        }
        int *temp = a;
        a = b;
        b = temp;
    }
    if (a != arr) {
        int i;
        for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
            b[i] = a[i];
        b = a;
    }
    free(b);
}

递归版:

实例

void merge_sort_recursive(int arr[], int reg[], int start, int end) {
    if (start >= end)
        return;
    int len = end - start, mid = (len >> 1) + start;
    int start1 = start, end1 = mid;
    int start2 = mid + 1, end2 = end;
    merge_sort_recursive(arr, reg, start1, end1);
    merge_sort_recursive(arr, reg, start2, end2);
    int k = start;
    while (start1 <= end1 && start2 <= end2)
        reg[k++] = arr[start1] < arr[start2] ? arr[start1++] : arr[start2++];
    while (start1 <= end1)
        reg[k++] = arr[start1++];
    while (start2 <= end2)
        reg[k++] = arr[start2++];
    for (k = start; k <= end; k++)
        arr[k] = reg[k];
}

void merge_sort(int arr[], const int len) {
    int reg[len];
    merge_sort_recursive(arr, reg, 0, len - 1);
}
C++

迭代版:

实例

template // 整數或浮點數皆可使用,若要使用物件(class)時必須設定"小於"(<)的運算子功能
void merge_sort(T arr[], int len) {
    T *a = arr;
    T *b = new T[len];
    for (int seg = 1; seg < len; seg += seg) {
        for (int start = 0; start < len; start += seg + seg) {
            int low = start, mid = min(start + seg, len), high = min(start + seg + seg, len);
            int k = low;
            int start1 = low, end1 = mid;
            int start2 = mid, end2 = high;
            while (start1 < end1 && start2 < end2)
                b[k++] = a[start1] < a[start2] ? a[start1++] : a[start2++];
            while (start1 < end1)
                b[k++] = a[start1++];
            while (start2 < end2)
                b[k++] = a[start2++];
        }
        T *temp = a;
        a = b;
        b = temp;
    }
    if (a != arr) {
        for (int i = 0; i < len; i++)
            b[i] = a[i];
        b = a;
    }
    delete[] b;
}

递归版:

实例

void Merge(vector &Array, int front, int mid, int end) {
    // preconditions:
    // Array[front...mid] is sorted
    // Array[mid+1 ... end] is sorted
    // Copy Array[front ... mid] to LeftSubArray
    // Copy Array[mid+1 ... end] to RightSubArray
    vector LeftSubArray(Array.begin() + front, Array.begin() + mid + 1);
    vector RightSubArray(Array.begin() + mid + 1, Array.begin() + end + 1);
    int idxLeft = 0, idxRight = 0;
    LeftSubArray.insert(LeftSubArray.end(), numeric_limits::max());
    RightSubArray.insert(RightSubArray.end(), numeric_limits::max());
    // Pick min of LeftSubArray[idxLeft] and RightSubArray[idxRight], and put into Array[i]
    for (int i = front; i <= end; i++) {
        if (LeftSubArray[idxLeft] < RightSubArray[idxRight]) {
            Array[i] = LeftSubArray[idxLeft];
            idxLeft++;
        } else {
            Array[i] = RightSubArray[idxRight];
            idxRight++;
        }
    }
}

void MergeSort(vector &Array, int front, int end) {
    if (front >= end)
        return;
    int mid = (front + end) / 2;
    MergeSort(Array, front, mid);
    MergeSort(Array, mid + 1, end);
    Merge(Array, front, mid, end);
}
C#

实例

public static List sort(List lst) {
    if (lst.Count <= 1)
        return lst;
    int mid = lst.Count / 2;
    List left = new List();  // 定义左侧List
    List right = new List(); // 定义右侧List
    // 以下兩個循環把 lst 分為左右兩個 List
    for (int i = 0; i < mid; i++)
        left.Add(lst[i]);
    for (int j = mid; j < lst.Count; j++)
        right.Add(lst[j]);
    left = sort(left);
    right = sort(right);
    return merge(left, right);
}
/// 
/// 合併兩個已經排好序的List
/// 
/// 左側List
/// 右側List
/// 
static List merge(List left, List right) {
    List temp = new List();
    while (left.Count > 0 && right.Count > 0) {
        if (left[0] <= right[0]) {
            temp.Add(left[0]);
            left.RemoveAt(0);
        } else {
            temp.Add(right[0]);
            right.RemoveAt(0);
        }
    }
    if (left.Count > 0) {
        for (int i = 0; i < left.Count; i++)
            temp.Add(left[i]);
    }
    if (right.Count > 0) {
        for (int i = 0; i < right.Count; i++)
            temp.Add(right[i]);
    }
    return temp;
}
Ruby

实例

def merge list
  return list if list.size < 2

  pivot = list.size / 2

  # Merge
  lambda { |left, right|
    final = []
    until left.empty? or right.empty?
      final << if left.first < right.first; left.shift else right.shift end
    end
    final + left + right
  }.call merge(list[0...pivot]), merge(list[pivot..-1])
end

原文来自:https://www.runoob.com/w3cnote/merge-sort.html

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