导读 本文档介绍 Ubuntu 18.04.1 基本操作
却换到 root 并更改密码

用普通用户登录系统后,执行 sudo -s 命令切换到 root 模式

更改 root 密码

更改网卡配置
静态IP
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# vim /etc/network/interfaces
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# cat /etc/network/interfaces
# interfaces(5) file used by ifup(8) and ifdown(8)
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto ens33
iface ens33 inet static
address 192.168.10.6
gateway 192.168.10.2
netmask 255.255.255.0
dns-nameservers 114.114.114.114

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# /etc/init.d/networking restart
[ ok ] Restarting networking (via systemctl): networking.service.
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# ifconfig
ens33: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.10.6  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.10.255
        inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe05:75fb  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20
        ether 00:0c:29:05:75:fb  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 7529  bytes 9810758 (9.8 MB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 2430  bytes 233194 (233.1 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 322  bytes 25983 (25.9 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 322  bytes 25983 (25.9 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
动态IP
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# vim /etc/network/interfaces
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# cat /etc/network/interfaces
# interfaces(5) file used by ifup(8) and ifdown(8)
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

auto ens33
iface ens33 inet dhcp
#address 192.168.10.6
#gateway 192.168.10.2
#netmask 255.255.255.0
#dns-nameservers 114.114.114.114

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# /etc/init.d/networking restart
[ ok ] Restarting networking (via systemctl): networking.service.
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# ifconfig
ens33: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.10.10  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.10.255
        inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe05:75fb  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20
        ether 00:0c:29:05:75:fb  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 7637  bytes 9823020 (9.8 MB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 2606  bytes 253459 (253.4 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 393  bytes 30932 (30.9 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 393  bytes 30932 (30.9 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# ping www.baidu.com
PING www.baidu.com (14.215.177.38) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from www.baidu.com (14.215.177.38): icmp_seq=1 ttl=128 time=7.42 ms
64 bytes from www.baidu.com (14.215.177.38): icmp_seq=2 ttl=128 time=7.18 ms
64 bytes from www.baidu.com (14.215.177.38): icmp_seq=3 ttl=128 time=7.96 ms
64 bytes from www.baidu.com (14.215.177.38): icmp_seq=4 ttl=128 time=7.32 ms
^C
--- www.baidu.com ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3006ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 7.182/7.472/7.963/0.314 ms
临时IP
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# ifconfig
ens33: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.10.6  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.10.255
        inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe05:75fb  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20
        ether 00:0c:29:05:75:fb  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 348  bytes 34488 (34.4 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 575  bytes 48711 (48.7 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 976  bytes 82275 (82.2 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 976  bytes 82275 (82.2 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# ping www.163.com
PING z163ipv6.v.bsgslb.cn (183.47.233.6) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 183.47.233.6 (183.47.233.6): icmp_seq=1 ttl=128 time=5.09 ms
64 bytes from 183.47.233.6 (183.47.233.6): icmp_seq=2 ttl=128 time=8.10 ms
64 bytes from 183.47.233.6 (183.47.233.6): icmp_seq=3 ttl=128 time=6.68 ms
64 bytes from 183.47.233.6 (183.47.233.6): icmp_seq=4 ttl=128 time=5.93 ms
^C
--- z163ipv6.v.bsgslb.cn ping statistics ---
4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3006ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 5.094/6.457/8.109/1.110 ms

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# ifconfig ens33 192.168.100.163
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# ifconfig
ens33: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.100.163  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.100.255
        inet6 fe80::20c:29ff:fe05:75fb  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20
        ether 00:0c:29:05:75:fb  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 351  bytes 34885 (34.8 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 586  bytes 50269 (50.2 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10
        loop  txqueuelen 1000  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 980  bytes 82521 (82.5 KB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 980  bytes 82521 (82.5 KB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# ping www.163.com
ping: www.163.com: Name or service not known
配置 DNS
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# vim /etc/systemd/resolved.conf 
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# cat /etc/systemd/resolved.conf 
#  This file is part of systemd.
#
#  systemd is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
#  under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
#  the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
#  (at your option) any later version.
#
# Entries in this file show the compile time defaults.
# You can change settings by editing this file.
# Defaults can be restored by simply deleting this file.
#
# See resolved.conf(5) for details

[Resolve]
#DNS=192.168.10.2
DNS=114.114.114.114
#FallbackDNS=
#Domains=
#LLMNR=no
#MulticastDNS=no
#DNSSEC=no
#Cache=yes
#DNSStubListener=yes

改完DNS后,最好重启一下Ubuntu系统。

总结

以上就是 Ubuntu 18.04.1 的基本操作,希望能帮助到大家。

本文原创地址:https://www.linuxprobe.com/ubuntu-18-04-1-basic-operation.html编辑:传棋,审核员:逄增宝