导读 Docker是一个轻量级的基于进程的虚拟化解决方案。简单来说,Docker是将应用程序和运行环境一起打包成一个容器,进而可以发布到其他平台上运行。

环境:Ubuntu 18.04.1 LTS

安装Docker

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# apt-get install -y docker-engine
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree       
Reading state information... Done
...

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker version
Client:
 Version:           18.06.1-ce
 API version:       1.38
 Go version:        go1.10.4
 Git commit:        e68fc7a
 Built:             Fri Oct 19 19:43:14 2018
 OS/Arch:           linux/amd64
 Experimental:      false

Server:
 Engine:
  Version:          18.06.1-ce
  API version:      1.38 (minimum version 1.12)
  Go version:       go1.10.4
  Git commit:       e68fc7a
  Built:            Thu Sep 27 02:39:50 2018
  OS/Arch:          linux/amd64
  Experimental:     false

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# systemctl start docker
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# systemctl enable docker
Synchronizing state of docker.service with SysV service script with /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install.
Executing: /lib/systemd/systemd-sysv-install enable docker

搜索ubuntu相关的容器

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker search ubuntu
NAME                                                   DESCRIPTION                                     STARS               OFFICIAL            AUTOMATED
ubuntu                                                 Ubuntu is a Debian-based Linux operating sys   8838                [OK]                
dorowu/ubuntu-desktop-lxde-vnc                         Ubuntu with openssh-server and NoVNC            247                                     [OK]
rastasheep/ubuntu-sshd                                 Dockerized SSH service, built on top of offi   184                                     [OK]
consol/ubuntu-xfce-vnc                                 Ubuntu container with "headless" VNC session   136                                     [OK]
ansible/ubuntu14.04-ansible                            Ubuntu 14.04 LTS with ansible                   95                                      [OK]
ubuntu-upstart                                         Upstart is an event-based replacement for th   92                  [OK]

下载容器

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker pull ubuntu-upstart 
Using default tag: latest
latest: Pulling from library/ubuntu-upstart
8387d9ff0016: Pull complete 
3b52deaaf0ed: Pull complete 
4bd501fad6de: Pull complete 
a3ed95caeb02: Pull complete 
a6dc1658c730: Pull complete 
9ed623dca71b: Pull complete 
998ee72febf9: Pull complete 
437038dc2fba: Pull complete 
da0ee05a1a1d: Pull complete 
1e1c3e99deb1: Pull complete 
4fcc22d7b2a1: Pull complete 
6c7dda5571e4: Pull complete 
Digest: sha256:597dfb1868012dcd04a705572dbc1542cb7598bce0eaa1c2656eb3acfc8b51d2
Status: Downloaded newer image for ubuntu-upstart:latest

查看容器的镜像

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker images ubuntu-upstart
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ubuntu-upstart      latest              b28219773b9b        2 years ago         253MB

从上面的结果可以看到,容器已经成功下载。利用下载的ubuntu-upstart容器,可以运行一个简单的程序,此处以“Hello Docker”为例:

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker run ubuntu-upstart /bin/echo Hello Docker
Hello Docker

还可以使用其他容器,如使用ubuntu作为容器,下载操作如下:

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker pull ubuntu
Using default tag: latest
latest: Pulling from library/ubuntu
32802c0cfa4d: Pull complete 
da1315cffa03: Pull complete 
fa83472a3562: Pull complete 
f85999a86bef: Pull complete 
Digest: sha256:6d0e0c26489e33f5a6f0020edface2727db9489744ecc9b4f50c7fa671f23c49
Status: Downloaded newer image for ubuntu:latest
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker images ubuntu
REPOSITORY          TAG                 IMAGE ID            CREATED             SIZE
ubuntu              latest              93fd78260bd1        10 days ago         86.2MB

Docker的容器操作

当Docker中包含了容器,就如同虚拟机中安装了操作系统一样,可以运行、安装软件、做一些设置。现在就可以运行之前下载的ubuntu:

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker run -i -t ubuntu /bin/bash
#运行一个名为ubuntu的容器
#i选项表示捕获标准输入和输出;t选项表示分配的终端和控制台
root@05559b460591:/# 
root@05559b460591:/# uname -a
Linux 05559b460591 4.15.0-36-generic #39-Ubuntu SMP Mon Sep 24 16:19:09 UTC 2018 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux
root@05559b460591:/# exit
#退出容器
exit
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND             CREATED             STATUS              PORTS               NAMES

命令可以看到使用run命令运行了一个容器但退出之后容器也关闭了这不是想要的结果-这时可以使用选项d让容器一直在后台运行" data-source-line="114">从上面的命令可以看到,使用run命令运行了一个容器,但退出之后容器也关闭了,这不是想要的结果。这时可以使用选项d让容器一直在后台运行:

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker run -d -i -t ubuntu /bin/bash
b19cc95aef9cb6f402062915b527864cf045debc65dbabd23a495cea32a138dd
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE               COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS                      PORTS               NAMES
b19cc95aef9c        ubuntu              "/bin/bash"              15 seconds ago      Up 14 seconds                                   kind_johnson
05559b460591        ubuntu              "/bin/bash"              35 minutes ago      Exited (0) 9 minutes ago                        xenodochial_hypatia
5bc78fd29b2a        ubuntu-upstart      "/bin/echo Hello Doc"   42 minutes ago      Exited (0) 42 minutes ago                       silly_jennings
c54bb6d664b7        ubuntu-upstart      "/bin/echo Hello Doc"   44 minutes ago      Exited (0) 44 minutes ago                       jolly_thompson

从上面的命令输出可以看到一个IDb19cc95aef9c的容器正在运行,这个ID号就是操作此容器的重要参数。
容器运行在后台时,可以使用attach登录正在运行的容器:

root@jaking-virtual-machine:~# docker attach b19cc95aef9c
root@b19cc95aef9c:/# exit
exit
root@jaking-virtual-machine:~#

容器的操作还有很多命令,常用的操作还有:

docker cp :将容器中的文件复制到主机上
docker rm:删除一个容器
docker port:配置容器的端口转发
docker start:启动一个容器
docker stop:停止一个容器
docker top:显示容器中的进程
docker ps:列出容器
docker logs:获取容器的日志
除了以上这些操作外,Docker还有许多操作,可自行阅读相关文档了解。

本文原创地址:https://www.linuxprobe.com/docker-basic-operation.html编辑:传棋,审核员:逄增宝